River Invertebrate App – Status Update

We are aware users of our invertebrate identification app have been experiencing access issues.

S&TC apologises for any inconvenience caused.

River Invertebrate App

We are aware users of our invertebrate identification app have been experiencing access issues. S&TC apologises for any inconvenience caused.

Due to a problem out of our control we have had to migrate the app to a new company in order to restore its functionality. Addressing the technical fault is being treated as a top priority and we are working hard to get all existing users up and running as soon as possible.

A further update will be issued as soon as we have more news.
Issued: 17:00hrs 7th Nov 2019

Agricultural Pollution Update – Nov 2019

Government figures show currently only 14% of rivers are classified as healthy…..

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Government figures show currently only 14% of rivers are classified as healthy and rural areas are impacting 35% of waterbodies (EA, 2015). Evidence from the Riverfly Census has shown the greatest stressors on our rivers are sediment, excess nutrients, pesticides and other toxic chemicals – many of which are derived from agricultural practices through the poor management of soil, the storage/application of livestock slurry/manures and the use of pesticides.

The Environment Agency (EA) admit compliance with the regulatory baseline is low and progress is slow, variable and not secure as farmers react to market factors and incentives that put them under financial pressure. In 2018, the Government finally introduced ‘new’, legally enforceable Farming Rules for Water. The rules require farmers to manage their land to avoid water pollution. They provide a step by step checklist to safeguard water quality by requiring farmers to judge when it is best, for example, to apply fertilisers, where to store manures and how to avoid pollution from soil erosion.

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However, in our evidence to the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (EFRA) Committee’s consultation on the Agriculture Bill, we pointed out that the 2018 Regulations largely mirror earlier Codes of Good Agricultural Practice and Government guidance dating back to the 1980s. They are in essence the same rules repackaged that have failed to limit the impact of agriculture on our rivers or change farmer behaviour on the ground.

Yes, now they are enforceable in law. But being enforceable and actually being enforced are two very different things. That’s why at S&TC we want to see a firm commitment from Government, backed up by action, to enforce these new rules.

However, a recent Freedom of Information request made by S&TC revealed that the EA for 2018/2019 only made 403 farm visits. As there are 106,000 farm businesses, since the 2018 Regulations came into force, only about 0.4% of farms have received a visit. At that rate every farm business will get one visit every 263 years.

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As for breaches of the new rules, the rate of breaches found by the Agency suggests that if all farm businesses all were visited in a single year, we would expect about 4,000 breaches of the 2018 Regulations in the last year alone.

No doubt the EA would suggest these 403 visits were in some way targeted inspections of high risk sites, but it’s also important to bear in mind that visits only occur on one day out of the 365 and actions like spreading slurry on frozen ground or spraying herbicides just before rainfall only takes a day and is likely to be missed.

In short, the EA currently does not have the resources to monitor or enforce the 2018 Regulations effectively and our rivers are paying the price. Until we have an enforcement system where people know they will be caught and action taken if they do the wrong thing, things will not change.

One requirement of the 2018 Regulations is for the Secretary of State to periodically review the provisions contained with the 2018 Regulations. The first report must be published before 2ndApril 2021.

So, we welcome your help to help provide the evidence that the 2018 Regulations on the statute book is not enough.

The EA must have the proper resources to ensure the new rules are implemented and enforced.

And that’s not just S&TC saying that – this was the EFRA Committee of MPs back in 2005:

“Time and again over the course of our enquiries into environmental crime, it has been brought home to us that unless there is a real threat of being detected, the offender will continue to offend.  We cannot stress strongly enough the importance of the threat of detection as a deterrent."

Of course, we need to continue with positive incentives too, and we will continue to lobby for post-Brexit farming regulations which reward farmers for effective environmental protection, but this alone will not achieve healthy watercourses. We need an enforcement and regulation system with teeth.

Reporting with a purpose

S&TC is a national organisation and we use evidence from local case studies to help instigate policy changes that will benefit UK wild fish populations. But, this is just part of the value - we are making all our Riverfly Census findings available so they can be used to inform local management and drive action.

Each individual river report is based on three years of surveying data. Where possible, we have linked up our findings with other existing literature and data. Using the available information we suggest where local fishing and/or conservation groups can focus their management efforts to achieve the best health outcomes for each of the 12 original Census rivers.

Some of our local reports can be found on the slider below. Alternatively, visit the Riverfly Census page and scroll down to the map.

SmartRivers Update – Great Stour

This autumn we took SmartRivers to the beautiful county of Kent.

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Thanks to the generosity of Stour Fishery Association we were able to start working on the Great Stour, an interesting river that begins away from Kent’s chalk downs, yet enjoys the full character of a chalk stream due to significant influxes of groundwater from chalk springs in the river valley. 

We successfully collected our professional ‘benchmark’ samples at five sites. Benchmarking is the first step for any new hub. As well as providing the basis of the training, it also provides a scientifically robust reference point. We will be returning in spring to finish the benchmarking. Some invertebrate species are only found in certain seasons, so sampling in both autumn and spring gives us good coverage.

Once the benchmarks were collected we moved on teaching the SFA volunteers how to perform a 3 minute kick-sweep sample to a near professional standard. This included how to identify the available habitats and divvy up your 3 minutes sampling time accordingly. Varying sizes of bed substrate, plants at the river margins and different types of in-river weed all host their own unique assemblages of invertebrates. For a representative, useful sample it is key to move around and capture all these habitats. The volunteers did a brilliant job getting to grips with the technique.

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For the second part of the day, we said goodbye to the picturesque Godmersham Park and headed to the classroom. Using samples collected from the morning, the volunteers were trained to properly wash their samples using various sieves and begin the challenging process of picking out animals. Invertebrates come in many different forms and most are tiny in size, so this is no small undertaking! Even an expert can spend a whole day simply picking out invertebrates. The beauty of the SmartRivers process is that if you start to go ‘tray blind’ the animals are preserved in alcohol, so you can take as long as you need!

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A huge thank you to our trainers, Richard Osmond and Matt Owen-Farmer and of course to the Stour Fishery Association for enrolling into SmartRivers. We look forward to visiting you again in spring for a lesson in identifying your expected species!

If your club or group is interested in being part of SmartRivers drop me a message at smartrivers@salmon-trout.org

We can only run courses with groups of around 10 volunteers, but if you are struggling to find additional volunteers your local Rivers Trust or Wildlife Trust may be able to help! No previous experience is required, but Riverfly Partnership training is handy to have.

Reporting with a purpose

S&TC is a national organisation and we use evidence from local case studies to help instigate policy changes that will benefit UK wild fish populations. But, this is just part of the value - we are making all our Riverfly Census findings available so they can be used to inform local management and drive action.

Each individual river report is based on three years of surveying data. Where possible, we have linked up our findings with other existing literature and data. Using the available information we suggest where local fishing and/or conservation groups can focus their management efforts to achieve the best health outcomes for each of the 12 original Census rivers.

Some of our local reports can be found on the slider below. Alternatively, visit the Riverfly Census page and scroll down to the map.

SmartRivers is delivering results

The hot dry summer has exposed the stress our rivers are under

Nick Measham, Deputy CEO, S&TC

To view the full interview click HERE

The hot dry summer has exposed the stress our rivers are under – particularly in Southern chalkstreams where algal growth and sediment is choking life to a seemingly unprecedented extent. Once clean gravels are covered in thick mats of algae and river weeds are festooned with tresses of filamentous algae. Elsewhere in England and Wales, lethal fish-killing slurry spills are occurring with distressing frequency.

S&TC’s Riverfly Census and our SmartRivers’ initiative, using volunteers to collect species-level data to Environment Agency (EA) standards, demonstrates the destructive impact agriculture is having on water quality through sediment, phosphate and chemicals leaching into rivers. Sewage works remain a problem – albeit possibly a reducing one if their own monitoring is to be believed which, as a result of the case of Southern Water, we need to remain sceptical about.

Great news then that SmartRivers is spreading rapidly across the country thanks to support from Esmée Fairbairn, Patagonia and others. This volunteer data collection is providing evidence of the good, the bad and the ugly in our rivers.

Lauren Mattingley, S&TC Science Officer said: 

"Since launch in spring this year, the ‘SmartRivers’ effect has begun to spread across the UK. With five hubs established and a further six in the process of enrolment, in just a short period of time SmartRivers has already started to grow."

Autumn 2019 has seen the completion of Wiltshire Fisheries Association's training, the enrolment of Stour Fishery Association in Kent and the first round of volunteer species identification from Bowland Game Fishing Association . Meanwhile back at HQ we are hard at work preparing new species to be added to our app, filling gaps identified by our hubs.

Another focus is the development of our linked database. This will communicate with the Environment Agency’s data and other citizen science data platforms. By ensuring our data speaks to other data, we have the best chance of understanding and alleviating the subtle, often invisible pressures threatening nature’s nursery of wild salmon and trout

The power of this species-level invertebrate data is that it enables the local SmartRivers’ hubs, supported by S&TC, to produce robust and tangible results. The EA’s action to force Bakkavör to stop discharging deadly pesticides washed off imported salads into the headwaters of the Itchen is just one case in point.

Nick Measham, S&TC’s Deputy CEO (Project Manager for the Riverfly Census and SmartRivers) said,

"The work to get Bakkavor to remove pesticides from its discharge is setting national precedents and changing policy. The local EA has already asked another salad-washer, Vitacress, to take out pesticides from its discharge. We will keep up the pressure until all salad and vegetable processing clean up their act."

On that note, we are hopeful that Bakkavor will be able to employ sophisticated technology to clean its discharge to an acceptable level. We will be keeping up the pressure to ensure this happens as we told the EA in a meeting this week. Other potential actions on the back of SmartRivers’ data are well-advanced in the Hampshire Avon catchment, another SAC river in a poor condition in many places.

Our fundamental aim is to make sure agricultural regulations are observed and enforced if need be. This will not be easy. The resources currently available to the EA to inspect farms are insufficient. A farm is inspected on average once every 200 years. We need all the SmartRivers’ evidence we can muster.

Reporting with a purpose

S&TC is a national organisation and we use evidence from local case studies to help instigate policy changes that will benefit UK wild fish populations. But, this is just part of the value - we are making all our Riverfly Census findings available so they can be used to inform local management and drive action.

Each individual river report is based on three years of surveying data. Where possible, we have linked up our findings with other existing literature and data. Using the available information we suggest where local fishing and/or conservation groups can focus their management efforts to achieve the best health outcomes for each of the 12 original Census rivers.

Some of our local reports can be found on the slider below. Alternatively, visit the Riverfly Census page and scroll down to the map.

Discharges from salad washing – Update

Salad washing on the Upper Itchen: A local problem with national significance…

Nick Measham , Deputy CEO, S&TC writes…….

S&TC’s battle to stop Bakkavör discharging pesticides and chlorinated plant-cleaning chemicals from its salad washing activities is achieving increased environmental protection, and not just for the Upper Itchen. [Previously covered by BBC Countryfile]

As a result of an Environment Agency investigation, in response to S&TC’s Environmental Damage challenge, both Bakkavör and The Watercress Company will be subject to individual pesticide discharge limits and required to carry out monitoring for a wide range of toxins.

The outcome so far is an improvement but much more remains to be done both on the Itchen and nationally to provide protection against pesticides in combination. Our fight to change national policy to require consideration of the impact of a mixture of pesticides continues.

Results so far:

  • On the Upper Itchen, the Environment Agency (EA) is seeking to revise the discharge permits of both Bakkavör and The Watercress Company’s to limit pesticide concentrations. Bakkavör discharges its overnight factory cleaning waste water directly into the river, but the daily water used to wash the salad leaves goes to The Watercress Company cress beds. TWC does not use pesticides in its growing activities and has therefore not been monitored up to now.
  • We understand Bakkavör is already trialling equipment to remove the pesticides from its discharges to enable it to meet the limits the EA imposes. The company has already stopped using chlorinated chemicals in its plant cleaning waste water.
  • It looks like the EA will require Vitacress’ salad washing plant on the Bourne Rivulet, a tributary of the Test, to meet the same pesticide discharge standards as Bakkavör.

What’s next?

  • The immediate next step is to ensure any revised discharge permits protect the river from the salad washing activities. While the EA has accepted the need for pesticide limits and associated monitoring, S&TC will scrutinise proposed permit changes, when they are published, to ensure the pesticide limits deliver the highest standards of protection currently available.
  • These current standards only consider pesticides individually not in the cocktail which is discharging into the Upper Itchen. There is an urgent need for the Government to investigate the impact of chronic, often low-level pesticide impacts in combination. We are extremely concerned about the impact of multiple different pesticides in combination. The EA’s investigation report following the Environmental Damage challenge in respect of the Upper Itchen refers to the risks on page 36:

“this poses a potential risk of exposure to invertebrates downstream of the discharge and being exposed to multiple different pesticide compounds intermittently at low concentrations (which may be above the Probable No Effect Concentration on infrequent occasions). 

 Current UK policy is to look at the effect of individual pesticides, not the effective exposure to a mixture. A change to policy is being considered at a European Union level, but we are a long way (temporally) from this policy being revised.”

This delay in acting on potentially lethal cocktails of pesticides is just plain wrong and, like so much government policy, completely ignores the precautionary principle. S&TC has written to Dr. Thérèse Coffey to ask what Defra intends to do about this on the Itchen, other SAC rivers and, indeed, any river.

Reporting with a purpose

S&TC is a national organisation and we use evidence from local case studies to help instigate policy changes that will benefit UK wild fish populations. But, this is just part of the value - we are making all our Riverfly Census findings available so they can be used to inform local management and drive action.

Each individual river report is based on three years of surveying data. Where possible, we have linked up our findings with other existing literature and data. Using the available information we suggest where local fishing and/or conservation groups can focus their management efforts to achieve the best health outcomes for each of the 12 original Census rivers.

Some of our local reports can be found on the slider below. Alternatively, visit the Riverfly Census page and scroll down to the map.

Chalk streams debated in parliament

We always intended the Riverfly Census to be a lobbying document as well as reporting on the science, and this has been an excellent first political outing for it.

Paul Knight, CEO, S&TC

In a speech during a House of Commons debate on "Degraded chalk stream environments", Richard Benyon MP cited evidence from S&TC’s ground breaking Riverfly Census Report. Further, he referenced our investigative work into previously unknown pesticide issues associated with a salad washing plant owned by multinational food group, Bakkavör. [recently covered by BBC Countryfile]

By way of response, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs minister, Dr Thérèse Coffee, rather worryingly pointed to the EA’s permitting system for discharges into rivers as giving them adequate protection. S&TC does not agree.

Nick Measham, S&TC’s Deputy CEO (Project Manager for the Riverfly Census and SmartRivers) said,

“Richard Benyon used S&TC’s professionally sampled and analysed data to show that our rivers are far from being protected at the moment, especially our chalk streams, which we have shown are badly impacted not only by toxic chemicals, but excess phosphate and sediment as well.  We suspect that one of the outcomes of our Bakkavör work may well have national implications for discharges directly into watercourses, so Dr Coffee might not be quite so confident in her agency’s permitting performance in the near future.”

S&TC’s Head of Science, Dr Janina Gray, added,

“Our Riverfly Census results show the power of good science to establish the ecological health status of our rivers and at the same time encourage the Environment Agency to actually take action when problems are highlighted.  It also shows that by producing sound science such as the Riverfly Census results, we can support Richard Benyon and his Parliamentary colleagues with solid evidence to help them influence change at the highest level.”

S&TC’s CEO, Paul Knight, said,

“Richard Benyon’s speech was a welcome public endorsement of our approach to protecting wild water and all that relies on it. He outlined that our data had shown a pesticide discharge from Bakkavor’s plant into the River Itchen that had gone unnoticed, until the arrival of the S&TC team to analyse the invertebrates. This precipitated the Environment Agency conducting their own analysis, which confirmed our results. It is clear none of this would have happened without our intervention, data gathering and subsequent lobbying.”

Follow the full debate in Hansard

Reporting with a purpose

S&TC is a national organisation and we use evidence from local case studies to help instigate policy changes that will benefit UK wild fish populations. But, this is just part of the value - we are making all our Riverfly Census findings available so they can be used to inform local management and drive action.

Each individual river report is based on three years of surveying data. Where possible, we have linked up our findings with other existing literature and data. Using the available information we suggest where local fishing and/or conservation groups can focus their management efforts to achieve the best health outcomes for each of the 12 original Census rivers.

Some of our local reports can be found on the slider below. Alternatively, visit the Riverfly Census page and scroll down to the map.

Salmon stock exploitation: Wales delays, while England acts

Salmon stock exploitation: Wales delays, while England acts

On the 14th June 2019, in response to troubling results from their own analysis of Severn salmon stocks, the Environment Agency (EA) implemented an emergency bylaw prohibiting the use of certain nets in the estuary and imposed compulsory catch and release on all other nets and rod and line fisheries on the whole of the river for the remainder of the season.

Richard Garner Williams, S&TC Cymru said:

“S&TC Cymru congratulate the EA on this decisive move and trust that the bylaw will be observed by all.” 

Somewhat worryingly however, until the Welsh Minister for the Environment, Energy and Rural Affairs decides to approve similar bylaws for Wales, proposed eighteen months ago by Natural Resources Wales (NRW), this EA bylaw cannot be enforced on the Welsh reaches of the Severn, nor its tributaries. Further, despite the stock assessment for 2018 showing every salmon river in Wales to be "at risk, or probably at risk, of failing to meet its conservation limits," NRW remain unable to extend the enforcement of compulsory catch and release of salmon to all Welsh rivers.[1] Solely the result of political feet dragging.­­

NRW have previously conducted three comprehensive regional consultations on proposed changes to rod and net bylaws with regard to salmon and sea trout in Wales. The first and most extensive, in terms of geographical coverage, concerned every river in Wales but for the Dee, Wye and Severn. Two further, more specific, consultations then followed. One concerning the Dee and the Wye, both of which rise in Wales but bless England with their presence for part of their journey to the sea, and another for the Severn, which while it rises in Wales, flows for the greater part of its length through England.

By reciprocal arrangement the regulations relating to the exploitation of the salmon populations of the Dee and the Wye are governed by NRW, while management of the Severn salmon stocks falls to the EA.

With salmon stock assessments in Wales showing a continued decline, NRW contends it is imperative to implement a policy of compulsory catch and release on all Welsh waters to protect remaining salmon populations from further exploitation. As a result of the NRW consultations, bylaws were proposed placing restrictions on method, such as banning the use of treble hooks and all forms of bait. Further restrictions to those stipulated in the current bylaws relating to sewin (sea trout) were also put forward for consultation.

2018 Salmon Stock Assessment: http://bit.ly/2wtMlrK

In early 2018 these bylaw proposals were endorsed by the board of NRW and submitted to Welsh Government for confirmation. Six months later, in the autumn of 2018, in a wholly unexpected turn of events, Lesley Griffiths, the then Cabinet Secretary for Energy, Planning and Rural Affairs and more recently Minister for the Environment, Energy and Rural Affairs announced her conclusion that given “the level of response to the consultation, the number of outstanding objections to the byelaw proposals and the nature of the correspondence” it is “the most appropriate course of action to conduct a local Inquiry which will allow independent scrutiny of NRW’s proposals.”[2]

Richard Garner Williams commented:

“Proposals to protect salmon stocks in Wales have been put on hold while a protracted enquiry runs its course. The Inspector has now delivered his report but we remain none the wiser about the future intentions of the Welsh Government towards regulating the exploitation of a rapidly declining species. Meanwhile NRW have published their stock assessment for 2018 showing every salmon river in Wales to be at risk, or probably at risk, of failing to meet its conservation limits. Time is not a luxury we have in the fight to save wild Welsh Atlantic salmon for future generations.”

  1. Compulsory catch and release of salmon is already force on the Wye, Taff and Rhymni under the demands of an existing bylaw.
  2. https://naturalresourceswales.gov.uk/guidance-and-advice/business-sectors/fisheries/local-inquiry-into-nrw-s-proposals-for-new-rod-and-net-fishing-byelaws/?lang=en

For more information please contact: wales@salmon-trout.org

 

Troubling news from Wales

Troubling news from Wales as the recently published 2018 assessments of salmon and sea trout populations point towards a continued decline.

Stocks in twelve of the twenty-three principle salmon rivers were deemed to be “at risk” of failing to reach their conservation limits for sustainable recruitment and those in the remaining eleven rivers to be “probably at risk”.

Sewin stocks were found to be in an equally worrying situation with populations in sixteen of the thirty-three principle rivers revealed to be “at risk” and all but two of the remainder “probably at risk”. The need for urgent action to halt these declines grows by the day, not least in remedying the deterioration in water quality of several rivers brought about by intensive agriculture.

We eagerly await an announcement from Lesley Griffiths, Minister for Environment, Energy and Rural Affairs, on the details of the new regulations to tackle agricultural pollution to be implemented in January 2020 in the hope that they will be sufficiently robust to bring an end to the current unacceptable practices of a small number of irresponsible operators. While they will not be sufficient in themselves to bring about a complete recovery of stocks, they will nevertheless be warmly welcomed as an important first step in addressing the plight of our precious sewin and salmon.

 

Unlike Scotland and England, where the potential impact of everyday farming practices on water are regulated under a suite of legally enforced rules and measures, farmers in Wales have until recently only been expected to follow the voluntary Code of Good Agricultural Practice (CoGAP). There is a lot to be said for minimising regulatory control and respecting an individual’s right to use their own land as they please; but with rights come responsibilities which, when shouldered in a conscientious manner, naturally result in equitable outcomes. Sadly, that has not been the case with CoGAP and in recent years we have seen a startling increase in incidents of agricultural pollution, particularly so within the dairy sector, as producers have expanded their herds and effectively abandoned all notion of voluntary restraint in the spreading of slurry.

For more information please contact: wales@salmon-trout.org

2018 Sea Trout Stock Assessment: http://bit.ly/2XapNIa

2018 Salmon Stock Assessment: http://bit.ly/2wtMlrK

Header Image Credit: Steffan Jones

The Riverfly Census: Launch

“If you do nothing else this month, read the Riverfly Census report which got its first airing at a mid-May reception in London.”

Nick Mesham, Deputy CEO, Salmon & Trout Conservation

To download the full report: CLICK HERE 

Once upon a time, industry was poisoning the nation’s life-blood rivers, but the story nowadays is all about more subtle but equally lethal threats.

The RiverFly Census presents the conclusions and policy recommendations from three years of unprecedented species-level research and analysis across 12 rivers from southern chalk streams to the north’s Eden and Coquet.

The scope of the analysis is staggering: we (or rather, our independent scientist, Dr Nick Everall and his team) have sampled 34,000 river-dwelling invertebrates from more than 480 different species. This massive data set of aquatic “wee beasties” has provided hard evidence on the decline of riverfly life and tells a story of the pollution stresses our rivers face. By the Environment Agency’s own reckoning, only 14 % of our rivers are healthy and we reckon it is worse than that.

Next steps: SmartRivers 

We will be using the results from the Census to campaign for action to restore our rivers, but our work will not stop there. We need much more evidence from other rivers to maximise our impact, but we cannot do this alone.

We are calling on volunteers to extend the Riverfly Census’s probing health check to as many rivers in the UK as we can with our SmartRivers initiative (https://www.salmon-trout.org/smart-rivers/.

We have the funding to help you make this happen.

If you are up to the challenge, contact us at smartrivers@salmon-trout.org or on 01425 652461

Reporting with a purpose

S&TC are a national organisation and we use evidence from local case studies to help instigate policy changes that will benefit UK wild fish populations. But, this is just part of the value - we are making all our Riverfly Census findings available so they can be used to inform local management and drive action.

Each individual river report is based on three years of surveying data. Where possible, we have linked up our findings with other existing literature and data. Using the available information we suggest where local fishing and/or conservation groups can focus their management efforts to achieve the best health outcomes for each of the 12 original Census rivers.

Some of our local reports can be found on the slider below. Alternatively, visit the Riverfly Census page and scroll down to the map.

SmartRivers Update – June 2019

May saw the initiation of another one of our SmartRivers pilot hubs. We are very happy to be adding two chalkstreams - the Avon and the Wylye - to the SmartRivers family, thanks to Wiltshire Fisheries Association.

Taking river guardianship into our own hands

For all rivers being added to SmartRivers, a professional scientist has to come and complete an initial benchmark, just for one year. We successfully collected the spring benchmark for the new Wylye and Avon sites, and will return to complete the benchmark in autumn. The benchmark is the backbone of any new SmartRivers hub, as it is a scientifically verified baseline to compare volunteer samples to.

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Following collection of the benchmark, we had an exciting session teaching the WFA volunteers how to kick-sweep sample to the possible highest standard; from divvying up the habitats properly to using the correct net technique. Technique is crucial to ensure the data we obtain is as representative as possible and usable to drive change.

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I took the opportunity to get up close and personal with one of my favourite nymphs - the flat-bodied mayfly. Their streamlined bodies have remained the same for millions of years, making them perfectly adapted to cling onto the riverbed under high flow conditions. Flat-bodied mayflies are great news for wild fish, as they are an important food source and indicate good water quality.

Later in the day we were off the river bank and inside giving WFA a lesson in cleaning and sorting their samples. SmartRivers is completely flexible, so you can get as hands on as you like. Whether you post your sample to an expert to identify, or ID yourself, there is an option for everyone.

Looking forward to autumn, which will see collection of the final benchmark sample and more training for WFA. This time focusing on species-level identification, using species from their own waters.

Header image credit: Lauren @ Salmon & Trout Conservation

For SmartRivers enquiries contact Lauren at smartrivers@salmon-trout.org